Here we go with a little music theory (not too much though). Take a look at the circle of fifths below, yeah it looks complicated and in truth, it can be a little bit – but we’re going to take a really basic look at it today and it won’t be scary.
The circle of fifths in very simple terms shows the relationship between notes/chords. It can help you to work out the key of a song which is really useful if you need to transpose a song, but the reason I’m showing you it today is to help you with chord progressions.
A simple I-IV-V progression
All the notes in the outer circle moving around in a clockwise motion are evenly spaced by a fifth. That’s why it’s called the circle of fifths.
Take a look at the C note at the top of the outer circle. Going clockwise around the circle we have G which is the C’s 5th. Anti-clockwise from the C we have F, it’s 4th. This gives us the chords (C-F-G) for a I-IV-V chord progression in the key of C. The I-IV-V progression is an incredibly common chord progression, you will hear it all the time without even realising it.
If we instead wanted to play a I-IV-V chord progression in the key of A, we simply apply the same method starting with an A chord. So the progression becomes A-D-E. Simple isn’t it?
The beauty of the circle of fifths is that it basically serves as a guide as to which chords work well together. Chords that sit closely together in the circle will work well together (be pleasing to the ear) – further apart and they won’t fit together quite so well. Obviously there will always be exceptions to that and the circle of fifths isn’t intended to be stuck to rigidly, but it is a good starting point.
Think of it as a way to visualise chord progressions and a guide to help you out when you can’t quite find the right chords to work together.
What can I do with it?
Well, as we’re only taking a very simple look at the circle of fifths for now (I’ll go more in depth in future), I’d suggest getting the circle in front of you and playing a few progressions while referring back to it. Notice how the chords work together – try jumping around the circle a bit and notice the difference.
Take a look at the Find Ukulele Chords tool I built which uses the theory behind the circle of fifths and gives you the chord boxes at the same time. Hopefully it will help you learn a few more chords and chord progressions.
Transposing a song with the circle of fifths…
Let’s say we have song that features the following chord progression – Dm F C G. If we locate those chords on the circle of fifths we can easily transpose that progression by simply moving that shape around the circle. Originally we’re starting on the inner circle with Dm, we then move to the outer circle and move around clockwise until we reach D. If we were to start on Em instead of Dm our progression would be Em G D A. That’s it, you’ve just transposed a song!